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Outer Manipur Zodawn Gamsungh - Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna

Written by  Published inR-Sanga Thursday, 24 May 2018 11:59
Outer Manipur Zodawn Gamsungh - Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna

"Outer Manipur Zodawn Gamsungh - Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna"

(Chieftainship Institution in the Hill Areas of Outer Manipur)

~ Dr. R. Sanga

 

 

Thupatna:

 

Tanglai akipan Outer Manipur huapsungh ih pu-pate satsa Khua khempeuh kivaihawmna pen pu-pa Tawndan leh Ngeina Daan (Customary Law & Traditional Practices) dungzui a, gou kiluahsawn zel in, Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna nuai ah ana kivaihawm tiltel uhi. Khua chih amah-le-amah kivaihawm hi a; pawlam akipan kuamah kithuneihkhum zaw sam om lou, tua hunlai a khawsakna toh kituak in mahni kitoudelh mahmah a khawsa chiat in ana nungta uhi. Huai hunlai in a khawvel uh neu mahmah a, 'Kuamah eng lou uh, Amaute zong kuamah in eng sam lou uh,' hihtuak hi. Khua-le-khua kisim in, kidouden uh abang maimah hi. Neekzonna lam ah tuantual petmah uh ahihman in, haksatak a khawsa bel ahi lim uhi.   

 

Tulel a Outer Manipur Zodawn (Hill Areas) huapsungh a Kivaihawmna pen sawngthum a khen in om hi:

(1) Village Level: Hiai omzia bel khua khat ahihke'h vengsung khat ah Village Authority kiteel in kivaihawmna mumaltak om hi - [The Manipur (in Hill Areas) Village Authority Act, 1956 (80 of 1956)].

(2) District Level: Autonomous District Council, mipi deihtelna dungzui in Councillors kitelna kumnga hal zel in om hi - (The Manipur Hill Areas District Councils Acts, 1971 & Rules, 1972).

(3) State Level: Hill Areas Committee kichi Manipur Legislative Assembly ah Tribal MLAs (19 + 1) = 20 om hi. India President ana hita, phamsa, Pu V.V. Giri in India Daan Bupi Art. 371C pansan in, "Hill Areas Committee Order, 1972" kichi tangpi-tangta theih diing in June 20, 1972 ni in ana puangkheta hi - (Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Manipur Legislative Assembly).

 

I. Outer Manipur Zodawn Gamsungh a Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna:

Hun khat lai Ni tum seng lou gam, ana vaihawmtu, England Kumpi in singtang mite (tribals) teenna Gam-Leitangh (Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas) kichi Gamsung nangawn ah hong lut in, Gam-mang leh Leinuai hauhsaknate enlah in gam hon keek hiaihiai uhi. Greek City State bang mai a khawsung Hausate, pawlam akipan kuamah thuneihkhum hi het lou a, amau-le-amau kivaihawm uh ahi chih chiantak a thei uh ahihman in khawsung gam-leitangh huapsung gamgi chiamtehna leh Hausa Khawnbawl Upate nuai a Kivaihawmna (Chieftainship Institution) theihpihna British Political Agent, J. Shakespeare (1905-1908) in gam-lai agelhthoh in Tribal Chiefs, Hausate khut ah ana pia hi. Huai gam lai agelhthoh a piak a om pen Khawsung khat a Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna namkipna ahi hi. Hausate khut ah piak ahih uh toh kiton in gou kiluah sawn a paitou zel in, Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna Outer Manipur State Zodawn gam-leitangh huapsung khempeuh ah tunitan paitou ngitnget lai hi. Huaiziak in, Hausate leh a ainah-phahpihte uh khut ah Gam-Leitangh tung a thuneihna tunitan ana omtou nilouh ahi chih mipite'n theihsiampih diing in ahoih hi.

 

Gam-Leitangh neitu hihna pen i pu-i-pa tawndan ngeina (customary laws) leh akhang-a-khang a gou kiluah leh chiindan ngeina (traditional practices) a kibulphuh in gam-maang (forests) leh a hauhsakna amaute thuneihna nuai ah om in, gam-maang (forest) akipan neek-le-dawn diing lakhawm a, ana khawsakhawm in, ateenna uh huapsungh a 'leitung leh leinuai hauhsakna chiteng' tualsuak mite khut ah om liuliau ahi chih michih in theihsiam mahmah diing a kul-le-poimoh ahi. Pawlam akipan thuneihkhum kuamah om lou, "Independent" mahmah ana hidan uh ahi. Tuni in tualsuak mite (Indigenous Peoples) gam neihdan khovel mundang a om mite toh tehkaak in akituam mahmah hi. Pu-pa ngeina Daan leh Tawndan (Customary Law and Traditional Practices) a kibulphuh a gam-leitangh anei mite i hi uhi. Khua sat a, tua mun a teeng in, mohpuakna chiteng leh khosung kivaihawmna ah haksatna leh buaina maituah gige a Makaitu hihna lentouden in, Hausa leh a Khawnbawl Upate'n gam ana vengbit uh ahihman in, Khawsung Hausa (Chief of the Village) hihna anei mite pen a suan-le-pakte un tunitan Hausa hihna dinmun luahtou zel in, hiai: "Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna" (Chieftainship Institution) kichi pen a paitou nilouh ahi hi. Huaiziak in, Hausa in zong gam-leitangh neitu ahihna pen azat khelh het louh diing in deihsakna i laan masa bok hi. Aziak bel, Gam-Leitangh tung ah thuneihna tengteng (absolute power) amah, Hausapa mimal khut ah om vek sipsip hi lou ahi chih atheihsiam a, khawsung mipite toh gam-leitangh neikhawm uh ahihlam aphawk mahmah diing ahi hi. Banghang hiam chihleh, Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna pen 'Autocratic form of government'  hi lou in,'Democratic form of government' ahizaw hi. Hausa (Chief) pen kha 'Dictator' hi het lou a, nidang lai hunte ah sa-le-gaal aom chiang in khawsung  milip ana pangkhawm ua, gaal ana doukhawm zel uh ahihman in gam-leitangh huutna leh neitu hihna toh kisai in 'Community Land Holding System' toh kibang ahi chih Hausate in zong mangngilh het lou a achiamteh gige diing uh ahi.

 

Gam-Leitangh neihdan tuabang geih, 'community land holding system' Nagate lak ah ana om a, tunitan zuiden lai uhi. "Community Land Holding System" a apai uh ziak in, Gam itna diktak Manipur Singtang mite lak ah Nagate in theisiam diak uh ahi diam chih sim in om hi. "Ka pu, ka pa uh akipan Gam-Leitangh neitu hihna anei Nam ka hi uh" chi in hangsantak in gam huutna toh kisai mimal chih pang tinten maimah uhi. Khua khat a teengkhawm mite pen mimal chiat in amau min a gam nei tiltel uh ana hidan ahi. Khawsung Kivaihawmna toh kisai Khullakpa/Headman khawteng ah kitelthoh in anei chiat uhi. Mimal a gam kineih tiltel himahle uh midangte kiang ah amah, gam neitu mimal in amawkna a zuakkhiak bel akikhaam bikbek uhi. Imphal hiam ahihke'h mundang ah inn-le-lou nei in huai gam neitu khat peuhpeuh khawsa mahleh, agaal akipan akepnop sungteng amaute lak a Khullakpa/Headman in atawkbuai kei himhim hi. Zohuan (Farming) bawl hiam, thildang bang hiam agam neihna huapsung pen amah, mimal deihdan a keem in zalentak in abawlthei gige hi.

 

Nidanglai a Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna thupi mahmah leh mi kuapeuh in zahtak petmah uh ahi chih tangpi-tangta theih ahi hi. Himahleh, India pen Leitung buppi a Mipi-vaihawmna toh kisai alianpen ahih toh kiton in Outer Manipur Zodawn khawsung kivaihawmna zong hon zelsuak ahihman in, Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna pen hong dau hiaihiai in, tuni chiang ngial in houh milip in thupi bawl lou leh apoimohna diktak phawkpha baan lou in koihdap in om hi. British Crown (England Kumpi) in bel thupi ngaih mahmah in, theihpihna ana bawlsak hi. Gam-leitangh toh kisai aneitu hihna genna in, Hausate toh kisai laigelhtu tuamtuam in hiai anuai a bang in ana chiamteh uhi:

  

"The Chiefs are the lords of the soil within their boundaries, and, if any alien wishes to enter a chief's territory and work his land, they must pay him the customary tithes." - Betram S. Carey & H.N. Tuck, The Chin Hills Volume I.

 

"The Rajah (Chief) is the sole supreme authority in the village or villages under him, no one else being competent to give orders or inflict punishment except through him." - Col. J. Shakespear, The Lushai-Kuki Clans.

 

"Separate rules govern the administration of the Hills; and they are detailed in the chapter dealing with the subjects." - Sir Robert Reid, the Governor of Assam, History of the Frontier Areas Bordering Assam 1893-1941.

 

Nidanglai hun in bel Buhsun-Saliang, Tangseu khawsung mipite'n Hausate kiang ah ana pekhawm sek uhi. Hiai pen siah (tax) chikhat ahi peuhmah hi. Jesu Krist in, "Pasian thilte Pasian kiang ah pia unla, Kaisar thilte Kaisar kiang ah pia un..." achih bang deuh in, siah piak kichi pen mihing pianken a ana omsa ahi chih theihsiam diing in ahoih hi. Siah piak a om mi, angahtu pen leh apetu (tax-receiver & tax-payer) in neitu hihna a namkip mahmah a, pawlam akipan kuamah in hon thuneihkhum lou ahihdan achian nawn bok hi. Atawm-le-tam thu hizaw lou in, neihtu hihna chetna diing a khawsung mite in Hausa kiang ah 'Tangseu' pen pia in, Hausa leh Mipite kaal ah kitheih-siamtuahna hoihtak tungding thaknawn le'ng; Phualpi leh State Sorkar theihpihna toh Outer Manipur Zodawn huapsungh gam-leitangh Kivaihawmna pen Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna nuai ah omden lai ahi chih chetna hipah ngal diing ahi. Lamka leh asehvel nasan ah Land Premium (Tax) MLR & LR Act, 1960 nuai ah piak saang in the Manipur Hill House Tax Act, 1966 nuai ah Hill House Tax piak chiat hileh tunung zel a diing in zong hoih in phatuam zaw ngeingei diing ahi chih chiamteh ni...!

 

Hill Areas Committee  - Thupukna Lamdang:

Hill Areas Committee Meeting Nisim 25.02.2003 ni a Sub-Committee (HAC), 2002 in genphatna apiaklut dungzui in, Manipur Sorkar nuai a, Department of Forest and Environment Notification No. 57/27/2001-For(Pt) dated 01-04-2002 toh kisai thusun abawl Guidelines a kigen hilhchetna para 2(d) hiai anuai a bang in Thupukna lamdangtak HAC in bawl zenhouh hi:

 

"Un-classed Forest means a Forest land owned by the Government or such land whose ownership is vested with Village Community/Chief, the boundary of which is demarcated by the Government but not constituted into reserved or protected Forests."      

 

Free Translation:

" Un-classed Forest  kichi omzia ahihleh 'Forest Land' Government thuneihna nuai a koih a om, or Village Community/Chief khut a neitu hihna  omsa gam-leitangh huapsungh, Government in agamgi akhensak, himahleh 'Reserved or Protected Forests a bawlkhiak bel hi lou, gam-leitangh huapsung khempeuh ahi," chi in Nisim 25-02-2003 ni in HAC in Thupukna lamdangtak ana bawl zenhouh hi.

 

Status of Forest in Manipur:

 

Forest Classification in Manipur

By Legal Classification

Area in Sq. Km.

% to Total Forest Area

Reserved Forest

1,467

8.40

Protected  Forest

4,171

24.00

* Other  Forest

11,780

67.60

Total

17,418

100.00

 

 

Gam Neitu Hihna Toh Kisai Hausate Dinmun:

 

Outer Manipur Zodawn Gamsungh - Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna nuai a gam-leitangh huapsung khempeuh 'Un-surveyed Land' ahi hi. Manipur State huapsungh Forest dinmun abawng-bawng a akikhenna ah Reserved Forest leh Protected Forest in ahuapkhak louh Forest dang tengteng 'Other Forest' in huap vek hi. Huaiziak in, hiai a 'other forest' (forest dang teng) kichi pen 'Un-classed Forest' kichi in agen omzia ahi chih chiamteh chiat ni...! Huchi hitaleh, HAC in thupukna lamdang abawl toh kisai theihtuak poimoh mahmah bel 'Unclassed Forest' kichi huap gam-leitangh pen tulel a khawsung Hausate gam leipeek Outer Manipur Zodawn Gam huapsungh tengteng ahi chih Hausate leh mipite in i theihtel mahmah uh kul-le-poimoh petmah ahi. Gam-leitangh neitu hihna toh kisai in 'Tem lou a Ngawntan' toh kibang dinmun ah Hausate om vek uh chihna suak hi.

  

Gam neitu hihna toh kisai nidanglai hun toh kibangnawn het lou ahi chih muhtheih in om hi. HAC in thupukna lamdangtak 25-02-2003 ni a abawl omzia bel khua (village) tuamtuam a Hausate gam neih tengteng 'unclassed forest' in huap vek ahihman in Hausate dinmun pen gam-leitangh neitu hihna toh kisai lauhthawnghuai leh delthawng petmah ahita hi. Bangloh a hoih diing hi hiam? Adawnna bel HAC in hiai thupukna lamdangtak abawl pen zuukkiik diing a naaktak a phutna neih kisam hi. Zuukkiik a aom kei nilouhleh bel tunung sawt lou a Manipur Sorkar in hiai thupukna pansan a munkhat peuhpeuh Government gam (Forest land owned by the Government) ahi chithei dinmun ah om ahihman in nawngkaina leh buaitheihna tampi maituahthei gige dinmun ah Hausate leh mipite ki-om ahita hi.

 

 

Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna leh Market Committee:

 

February 23, 2018 ni in "The Manipur Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2018" kichi Manipur State Assembly in Bill Passed hi. Hausate leh Gam-leitangh laaksuh theihna mipite a diing a hoih lou thu hunkhop hiai Act in tunkhawm hi:

 

(1) Section 3(3) - Establishment of Markets:

 Lou-nei mite (Farmers) in khaw-ul kai zoihzoih a asepkhiakte uh zuakna mun diing in Zohuan (Farm) Kelkong bul naihpen mun chiat ah "Marketing Platform(i.e., Gam-leitangh laaksuh theihna hun lemtang hiai ah thu kiselgu om hi) bawlkhia in hiai Act (Daan) nuai ah koihlut vek ahi diing," chi in kigelh hi.

 

 (2) Section 15(3) - Vesting of Property of Local Authority of Autonomous District  Council in Market Committee:

 

"The Local Authority or Autonomous District Council shall deliver possession of the land or building vesting in the Market Committee under sub-section (2) within a period of seven days from such vesting and on failure of the Local Authority or  Autonomous District Council to do so, within the period aforesaid, the Deputy Commissioner shall take possession of the land or building and cause it to be  delivered to the Market Committee."

 

Hiai ah gam-leitangh vai a thuneihna toh kisai - Autonomous District Council  leh Local/Village Authority thuneihna tengteng lakmangsak a DC khut ah thuneihna    saangtak hiai Act in apiak mawk ziak in Daan khenkhat tulel a akizang (existing laws) toh kikalh hithet hi. Market Committee ah gam-leitangh piakkhiak diing chih omzia   ahihleh: Inn (building) leh Lou-gam lian huntawk Manipur Sorkar khut ah ni sagih sung a DC in apiakkhiak diing chihna toh kibang ahihman in lauhuai lua hi.    

 

(3) Section 20(1) - Qualification to vote and be the Representative of Agriculturist:                      

      (1) "Every person -

           (a) whose name is entered as land owner in the village land  records or is a tenant as defined in the Manipur Land Revenue and  Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Act No. 33 of 1960);

           (c) whose name is included in the voter's list prepared under the provision of this Act and the Rules made thereunder, shall be qualified to vote at the election of a representative of agriculturist."

 

Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna nuai ah mimal khat gam neitu ahi chi a chiamtehna 'village land records' kichi tanglai akipan tunitan kua khua mah in abawllam uh kithei lou hi. Hiai bang chiamtehna om diing in zong a gintakhuai kei himhim hi. Tua baan ah, Hill Areas ah MLR & LR Act, 1960  kizang lou ahihman in, "Tenant" chih kammal hilhchetna kipia pen ei pawl a diing a kizangthei lou (not applicable) himhim hi.  Huaiziak a Manipur Sorkar in Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna gam-leitangh huapsungh ah MLR & LR Act, 1960 puaklut ahih a, zat utna lungsim nei ahih kei ngalleh hiai Act  pen bangchidan a hong kibawlkhia hi hiam chih ngaihsuthuai mahmah ahi.

 

Hiai Agri. Bill, 2018 or Act pen hong kizang taktak hile bel Hausate dinmun delthawngsak mahmah ahi chih achian hi. Banghang hiam chihleh, Manipur ah tunitan Hausate beisak a om lou uh ahihman in, pu-pa ngeina daan leh tawndan   ngeina (Customary Law & Traditional Practices) dungzui a 'Land Holding System' paitou lai ahihna ah kikawkalh mahmah diing asuak hi. Huaiziak in, ei pawl kuamah hiai Market Committee ah member a pangthei diing 'agriculturist' om lou diing ahi.

   

II. Panchayati Raj Institution:

Tanglai akipan Manipur ah tualsung chih ah mahni a kivaihawmna pen Valley (Phaijang) leh Hill Areas (Outer Manipur Zodawn Gam) huapsungte ah tunitan kivaihawmna toh kisai atuam, chinih in paitouden lai hi. Mangkang gamkeekte hun akipan Phaijang huapsung khua chih ah tualsung a mahni kivaihawmna (Village Councils) omsate pen 'Panchayati Raj Institution' a kheek in ana om hi. Manipur phaijang huapsung khua 13 ah Panchayats 1903 kum a koih in om hi:

 

(1) Bishnupur, (2) Irilbung, (3) Kakching, (4) Khongampat, (5) Lamshang, (6) Lilong,  (7) Mayang Imphal, (8) Moirang, (9) Nambol, (10) Sagolmang, (11) Wabagai, (12) Waikhong & (13) Wangoi].

 

 

Panchayati Raj Institution nuai a Tunai Khantouhna leh Tulel Dinmun:

Phaijang (Valley) ah 1955 tan panchayat system zui in mahni a kivaihawmna ana paitou nilouh hi. 1960 in tulai vai deuh a panchayat system nuai a kivaihawmna pen etkhiakna in Manipur Phaijang-Rural-Areas huapsungte ah puaklut in om mahleh lohching taktak lou hi. Kum 1972 a Manipur statehood a dopsang ahih toh kiton in Panchayati Raj Act, 1975 bawlkhiak in om a; pachayat system nuai ah kivaihawmna sawngthum a bawlkhiak in om hi: (1) Village Level ah Gram Panchayat, (2) Block Level ah Panchayat Samiti leh (3) District Level ah Zilla Parishad hiai Daan (Panchayati Raj Act) nuai ah bawlkhiak in om hi. Panchayat Institutions pen kum 22 hiai Daan nuai ah zuih leh zat in om hi. India Daan Bupi Bawlphatna 73rd veina 1972 toh kituak in ama a Daan omsa pen thaimang a Daan thak, "The Manipur Panchayati Raj Act, 1994" kichi April 23, 1994 a bawlkhiak in om hi.

 

Hiai Daan (Act) nuai a kivaihawmna ah thil poimoh mahmah hiai bang om hi: Khatna ah, village level ah gram panchayat leh district level ah Zilla Parishad bawlkhiak in om hi. Nihna ah, mi 3,000 saang a tawmzaw lou ~ 6,000 saang a tamzaw lou population omna khuate ah Gram Sabha bawlkhiak in om hi. Thumna ah, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes leh Numeite a diing biik in dinmun sehkholhsa (seats reservation), offices leh kiteelna ah amaute a diing bawlsak in om uhi. Lina ah, daan in apompih chinih (two statutory bodies), state finance commission leh state election commission toh kituak hiai Daan (Act) nuai ah bawlkhiak in om hi. Ngana ah, India Daan Bupi Schedule 11th–na a kigente gram panchayats leh zilla parishad ah suanlut in om hi. Gukna ah, State leh Central Government consolidated fund akipan in sum-le-pai zat diing hiai Daan sung ah kiteltak a bawlkhiak in om bok hi.

 

 

Chiamteh Diing Thu Poimoh Khenkhatte:

 

            1.  Phaijang a Gram Panchayat pen Hill Areas a Village Authority dinmun kikim ahihke'h kibang ahi. Himahleh, Chieftainship Institution pen Tribal Custom, Tradition & Culture a kibulphuh hinapi in Village Authority Members-te mipi  teelkhiak ahi veve uhi. Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna leh Gram Panchayat dinmun kibang het lou zel hi.

 

            2.  State leh Central Government 'Consolidated Fund' akipan Chieftainship Institution ah sum-le-pai zat diing daan toh kituak a sehkhiaksak in om lou hi. The Manipur (Hill Areas) Village Authority Act, 1956 dungzui in khawsung Hausa (Chief of the village) pen Village Authority ah Ex-Officio Chairman ahi a; himahleh Panchayati Raj Institution in Financial Power aneih bangbang Hill Areas huapsung ah Chieftainship Institution in thuneihna bangmah nei lou hi.

 

            3.  Manipur phaijang huapsung a Rural Areas kivaihawmna, Panchayati Raj Institution nuai a thuneihnate toh kikim Manipur Hill Areas huapsung a om, Chieftainship Institution in zong Daan toh kituak in thuneihna nei samleh kibatlualna om hi diing hi.

 

          4. Gam-Leitangh humbitna diing toh kisai in Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna aom touh zel thilhoihtak ahi; himahleh khantouhna leh mipite neekzonna leh  kivaihawmna toh kisai in bel nawngkaina tampi om thei leuleu zel abang hi.

 

            5. Chieftainship Institution (Hausa Innpi Vaihawmna) pen "The Manipur (in Hill Areas) Village Authority Act, 1956" pen Chieftainship Institution toh kituak a  bawl hi henla; Panchayati Raj Institution nuai a thuneihnate toh kikim a bawllem (Amendment) kul-le-poimoh lua ahi.

 

            6.  Village Authority Act, 1956 nuai ah Financial Powers piak in om lou hi. Panchayati Raj Institution in financial powers aneih bangbang Village Authority in zong aneih diing kisam hi. Tulai vai toh kituak deuh a bawlphatna om theileh mipite a diing in ahoih in aphatuam ngei diing in lamethuai hi.

 

            7. Tulel a Village Authority Act, 1956 nuai a kivaihawmna pen Autonomous District Councils thuneihna nuai ah koih in om a; hiaite tungvum ah Outer Manipur Hill Areas huapsung ah Hill Areas Committee in Zodawn Kivai-hawmna toh kisai a thuneihna saangpen nei ahihman in akinlam a "Outer Manipur Land Regulations" Hill Areas Committee in abawlkhiak diing thukin, thil kul-le-poimoh petmah ahi...!!  

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