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Indigenous Peoples' Right to Land

Written by  Dr R. Sanga Published inR-Sanga Tuesday, 14 August 2018 22:17

International Day of The World's Indigenous Peoples Held on the 9th August, 2018

AT Synod Hall, IB Road, Lamka, Manipur

Theme: "Indigenous Peoples' Right to Land"

By Dr R. Sanga

Thumapi:

 

Leitung buppi ah tualsuak mite gam 90 a kithehzaak in milip 370 million om ngei diing a tuat ahi. Leitung buppi milip za ah nga (5% of the world's population) himahleh a daikilkal a mi zawngpente lak ah za ah sawm-le-nga (15% of the poorest) a tuat in om uhi. Pau-le-ham atuam chiat 7,000 (languages) leh pu-pa ngeina tuamtuam 5,000 (different cultures) om diing a tuat ahi uhi.

 

"Indigenous Peoples" kichi kammal pen khovel pumpi huap a kiminlohna bawngkhatdan a vanzat khat ahi a, gambung khat hiam, tualsung khat ah bel kiminlohna kammal tuamtuam zong hiai bang in om hi: Adivasi, Aboriginals, Hill Tribes, Hunter-gatherers, etc., tua baan ah, mi bawngkhat minlohna tuambik khat a chepteh in om hi.   

 

Gamleitangh, a teenna gam uh baan ah leinuai leh leitung hauhsakna tengteng khantouhna leh thildang tuamtuam paulap a nei in Sorkar in tualsuak mite gamleitangh laksuh zel uhi. State vaihawmtute in nohna nasatak aneihte uh ziak in tualsuak mi tampite in gamleitangh mansuah in, khopi lam zuan a peemlut in khosakna hoihzaw leh laizilna lemtang leh sepna kichian lametnate ziak in apu-a-pa ua kipan ateenna gamleitanghte uh nusia a peem tampi omta uhi (e.g., Latin America ah tualsuak mite 40% urban areas ah peemlut uhi. Tua baan ah 80% gam khenkhat ah gambung tuam a peemlut om bok uhi).

 

Tualsuak Mite Gamleitangh Thuneihna (Indigenous Land Rights):

 

Hiai omzia bel, gamleitangh aluahna munte uh tualsuak mi kua hiam, mimal khat ahihke'h mipi thuneihna a kinga (the rights of indigenous peoples to land) ahi chih theihsiam diing kisam hi. Gamleitangh leh gam-gahte (land and resources) pen mihingte a diing a poimohna achil akipan a omsa ahi a, aziak bel sabiakna toh kisai a zong gamleitangh in omzia nei a, mahni mimal deihtelna, hihna chetna leh nekzonna toh kisai a gamleitangh pen apoimoh lua petmah ahi hi. Gamleitangh pen nekzonna toh kisai a gou thupi petmah ahi hi. Tualsuak mi atamzaw thamte gammang a teeng a, gam-gah leh gamleitangh hauhsakna a kinga, a taaksapte uh gammang akipan kaikhawm in khosa uhi. Gamsa, Ngasa, Theigah, Haichii, Loupateh khawng nekzonna a nei, tualsuak mi atamzaw ahi uhi. Gamleitangh pen mimal a neihtu hihna nei kei mahle uh, a teenna uh huapsung gammang a haichi-louhingte leh gam-gahte tengteng tualsuak mi tamtakte khosakna diing a poimohzaw ahi.   

 

Diktak a gen in, tualsuak mite in gamleitangh neitu hihna aneih uh thil kul-le-poimoh ahi; Aziak bel gam-gahte khempeuh angah theihna diing ua hiai tualsuak mite gamleitangh neitu hihna pen gamsung vaihawmtute in, gam Daan toh kituak a dinmun kichiantak a akoihsak diing uh kisam hi. Gamleitangh pen khalam khantouhna diing a zong mihingte a di'a kul-le-poimoh mahmah ahi. Gamleitangh pen asiangthou leh thil bangkim gam-gah angah khempeuhte uh Pasian akipan vualzawlna ahi hi. Gamleitangh amansuah chiang un, leitangh toh akizopna uh mangsak ahihke'h ahihna uh mansuah toh kibang asuak hi. Khovel muhdan leh gindan a zong gamleitangh pen lei-gou hiam neekzonna di'a manpha chihdan lel hi mai lou in, mihing hinkhua leh khosakna a diing a zong poimoh petmah ahi hi.  

 

Pu-pa satsa gamleitangh, tanglai akipan tualsuak mite in aluahna uh, ateenna uh gam, sing-le-gua leh gam hauhsaknate, pianken a aneihsa uh, poimohna bangkim a azat ngitnget uh, huai omzia bel, pu-pa tawndan ngeina, akhang-a-khang a aluahna uh gam ahihman in neitu hihna neikhinsa ahi uh chih pen tehna a zat diing, huchia atheihpihna diing a huai, neitu hihna pentak kha vanzat a nei a; Tualsuak mite pen gamleitangh neitu diktak ahi uh chih chiamtehna, Sorkar in abawlsak diing uh kisam hi (ILO, 2013:21).

 

Tualsuak mite'n ateenna uh gambung huapsung gamleitangh tung ah gam-gahte, aneitu hihna, azatna ah, puahphatna leh gam hauhsaknate tengteng tung ah thuneihna leh neitu hihna pianken a aneihsa uh ahi hi. At diing singtum (timber), Ngasa, Tui, Piauneel leh Leikawm thil manphate (minerals) tengteng pen thaksak theih leh thaksak theih louh gam-gah ahihke'h gam hauhsakna kichi in tunkhawm vek hi (ILO, 2009: 107). Huchia independent Gam khat peuhpeuh in leikawm thil hauhsaknate ahihke'h gam-gahte neitu bangdan a alaksuh peuhmahle bel, Convention No. 169 (Article 15.2) dungzui in  tualsuak mite dot masak a, amaute kiang akipan phalna lak masak diing, tua baan ah gam-gahte ziak a hamphatna  piak diing leh gamleitangh hihsiat a omte ziak a zaangna dopna piak a aom ngeingei diing uh ahi hi.

 

Tulel Manipur State Gamleitangh Dinmun:

 

Manipur pen State neunou khat hi a, agam meel kimkot 22,327 sq. km hi a, 2011 kisimpi dungzui in milip 25.70 lakh ahi hi. Tulel Manipur State pen Daan bupi dungzui in taang gam (hill areas) leh phaijang gam (valley areas) a sehkhen in om hi. A gamleitangh hoihtak a etkimvelsa leh etkimvel louh (surveyed & un-survey land) ahi hi. Phaijang gam huapsung teng pen etkimvelsa ngen hi a, taang gam huapsung teng pen agam neitu tualsuak mite theihpihna bang mah om lou a gamleitangh huapsung hun khop etkimvelsa hidan a chepteh in om a, gamleitangh etkimvelsa hi lou gam leipeek hun khop om hi. A gamleitangh neitu hihna pen khosung Hausate leh tualsuak mite khut ah om ahi hi.

 

October, 1969 tan dong Manipur pen District khat hi a, tua nung lam in district bawl thakna nga vei lam bang om hi. Tu lel in Districts 15 in kikhen a; Tualsuak mite teenna gamleitangh huapsung (Hill) Districts 10 a khennen in om hi viz., Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, Tamenglong, Ukhrul, Kangpokpi, Tengnoupal, Kamjong, Pherjawl leh Noney. Phaijang huapsung gamleitangh pen Districts 5 in kikhennen hi viz., Bishnupur, Imphal East, Imphal West, Thoubal leh Kakching ahi uhi; Autonomous District Councils 6 in kikhen bok hi viz., Churachandpur, Chandel, Ukhrul, Sadar Hills, Senapati leh Tamenglong.

 

 

Manipur Sorkar nuai ah, Revenue Department bawlkhiak a om in, leiman (siah) phaijang ah "Land Revenue" gamleitangh tung ah Sorkar in siah lakhawm zel a, huchi in taang gam huapsungte ah ahihleh Inn lusi ah siah (Hill House Tax) piak in om hi.

 

The Directorate of Settlement and Land Records nuai ah gamgi chiamtehna leh gam etkim velna bawl in om hi. Huchia gamgi chiamtehna leh gamleitangh etkimvelna bawlkhit ahih chiang in akisaipih Deputy Commissioner Office ah gam chiamtehna lai poimoh teng suanlut in om zel a, DC pen in gam lai poimohte kembit a, bawldik diing kul leh bawlhoih diing om khempeuhte bawldik diing a mohpuakna DC khut ah piak in om hi.

 

Manipur State Gam Chiamtehna Paizia (Land Record System):

 

Gam etkimvelna (survey) leh gam chiamtehna lai poimohte pen, 'Land Records' chi a chepteh in om hi. Hiai 'Land Records' chithum in kikhen sawn hi (i.e., Dag Chitha, Jamabandi, Tenant's Khatian).

 

Dag Chitha

Dag stands for plots Chitha means a register. Each and every plot of all settled or unsettled land is given a number (Dag No). The Dag Chitha or Field-index is written according to the Serial Number of the fields in the village. A piece of land within one boundary is possessed by one person or persons jointly. This register is a conclusive proof of the classification of land i.e., whether the land is a Govt land (Khas land in Manipur), a grazing ground, a fishery or a private land. 

 

Jamabandi

It is a register where the landholders are maintained alphabetically along with the details of the lands held by them. The field in the possession of each land holder and the classification of each field are entered from the Dag Chitha. Jamabandi Register is maintained separately for periodic estates and annual leases in the Circle Office. The periodic Jamabandi Register is maintained in duplicate. One copy is maintained in the office of Deputy Commissioner or Sub-Divisional Officer and the other copy in the Circle Office by the Recorder. 

 

Tenant's Khatian

This is the register of tenants, and entry of a tenant name gives him virtually the same status as that of a land holder in Jamabandi. The fields in the Tenant's Khatian form shall be entered from Dag Chitha and Jamabandi.

 

Thukhupna: UN minlohdan dungzui in tualsuak mite (Indigenous Peoples) kiminlohna  kammalte bel: "Adivasi, Aboriginals, Hill Tribes, Hunter-gatherers" kichi hi. India ah Adivasi kichi tampi om a; North-East India ah Hill Tribes kichi hi. Huchi hitaleh, Zosuante tengteng Hill Tribes in huam vek hi. Pu-pa satna Gam, Khua-le-Tui i hihna mun-le-mual, ahihke'h i teenna gamleitangh huapsungte khempeuh UN in achiamtehdan dungzui in bel Gamleitangh Neitu hihna kinei pha mahmah hi. Hausate leh Khawsung mi kuapeuh in theihsiam diing a hoih bel "Indigenous Peoples" (Tualsuak Mite) i hihna pen leh Gamleitangh Neitu hihna theihchet kilkel kiphamoh hi. Gam gah, sing-le-gua leh leinuai hauhsakna a kinga, pu-pa tawndan ngeina, akhang-a-khang a gou kiluahsawn zel - customs & traditional practices dungzui a Gam a nei mite kihidan ahi.

 

'Reserved Forest' chih paulap in Mr. H.S. Paonam, learned senior counsel in PIL No. 25 of 2017 High Court ah filed abawl ziak in Court Order dated 30.08.2017 ni in suak hi. Sing-le-gua saat kham bikbek ahi chih leh leisung a thil lui tohkhiak khaam bikbek ahi chih Sorkar in thusuah abawl diing ahi chi in kigelh hi. Agam neitu diktak, tualsuak mite in haksatna kituak panta ahihna ah, Zomi Human Rights Foundation in tulel Manipur State sung a teeng, tualsuak mite (indigenous peoples) gamleitangh luahna gam huapsung khempeuh, neitu hihna chiamteh ahihtheihna diing a ngetna agelhthoh in UN ah piaklut hileh chih thukup i bawl kawm in 'Home-Work' i pia hi.    

 

Lungdam.

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