Written by  Dr Tualchin Neihsial Published inGeneral Tuesday, 17 April 2018 17:48

Na identity theihcian in


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by  Dr Tualchin Neihsial

I pu –le-pate’n midang-namdang toh kisai a thu haksa leh thubuai a tuah ciang un,khatvei thu a thutanna bawl pah mawk lou in, “misite ka hon dong phot diing uh” ci in a thu na diah masa phot uh hi.


Misite ka hon dong phot diing uh” a cih ciang un haanmual khawng a va pai a, misisate kiang khawng a si-antah va pia a,phuisamna leh kithoihna khawng va nei a cihna uh hi lou hi.Hun pailiamsa gaaldotna [retrospection]nei a, amau-le-amau hunlemtang a kipiak sung ua:,taanglai a pu leh pate’ hun lai in tua minam[te] toh kisai bangbang thil a na tuak ua, sa-le-gaal a kineih hun in bangbang kisiatna leh kilemna[sialbanna,vokbanna,sasin-salung neekna,thaulawng sung tui dawnna,tuili luhna,sahang hapaak kei a kiciamna leh adangdang]bang zahvei ana bawl/nei ua cih leh huci bang kilemna leh kitheihsiamna a om ciang in tua kilepna/kitheihsiamna thukhun bangcik tuk in a kizahtaak a,bang zahvei bohsiat in a na omta a? cih khawngte zonkhiak leh kidot dialdial hun kipiakna diing a genna uh ahi hi.


Inngua hah diing maw gamgua hah zaw diing?

Upate’n “ inngua leh gamgua kitehpih ngei lou” na ci sawnsawn uh hi.Eite aa diing in inngua pen i nam[tribe] minte uh leh kikhaaikhawmna’ min “Zomi/Zoumi” i cih hi a,gamgua a cihte bel ei tualsuak hi lou “Kuki/Chin leh adangdang”a cihte ahi uh hi.


“Kuki’ leh “Chin’ kammalte pen ei-le-ei kicihna, ei tualsuak’ min hi peuhmah lou hi. Midang-namdangte hong theihna leh hong sapna min uh, Mangkaang Gamkeekte’n i theih louh kaal ua,tua minte hong piakluih uh ahi hi. Kuki/Chin minte pen kuamah pu’ min, pa’ min hi lou hi. Kuamah beh’ min, phung’ min leh nam’ min hi peuhmah lou hi. Kuamah pau leh lapau a om lou ahihman in tuni tanpha in la in kiphuak thei nai lou hi. Pu leh pate’n a bultuung a kipat a a na deih louh pah uh leh a na nolh nilouh ahi cih British laigelhtute mahmah in zong  kiciantak in hon na ciamteh uh hi.Sir J. George Scott, K.C.I.E in 1911 kum a a laibu gelh, “Burma: A Handbook of Practical Information” laimai[peek] 104 ah,“The names Kuki and Chin are not national, and have been given to them by their neighbours. Kuki is an Assamese or Bengali name given by them to all the hill tribes in their neighbourhood. Chin is the Burmese name given to all the people in the country between Burma and Assam. Its origin has not been determined. The Chins call themselves Zho,or Shu,Yo or Lai” ci hi. Sir J.George Scott,K.C.I.E mah in 1932 kum a a gelh, “Burma and Beyond”  kici laimai[peek] 187 ah, “Like others, the people do not accept the name given to them by the Burmese and ourselves; they do not call themselves Chins, and they equally flout the name of Kuki which their Assamese and Bengali neighbours use.They call themselves Zho,Shu, and in other parts Yo or Lai” na ci hi.Dr G.A.Grierson in zong, “Linguistic Survey of India” Volume  III,Part 3,laimai[peek] 2 ah, “The name [Kuki and Chin] is not used by the tribes themselves, who use titles such as Zo or Yo or Cho” ci hi.


Kuki Nomenclature deih lou a kiphinna leh thupuuknate:Gaaldot thakna:

“Kuki” chi a kiminloh diing deih louhna pen 1950 kum a hong kipan phet hi lou hi. Tamenglong a Sub-Divisional Officer[SDO] masapen a hong pang William Shaw in 1929 kum a a laibu gelh, “NOTES ON THE THADOU KUKIS” kichi sung laimai[peek] 30na a kigelh, “…the Changsan, Lhagum, Lenthang,Lunkim,Kom,Gangte,Waiphei,Kholhang,Chiru and those of inferior lineage were all under the wing of the Thadous and so were then included under the wing of the Thadous and so were then included under the term”a chih deih louhna leh pomsiam louhna ziak in 1942 kum, June 26 ni in Kuki chi a kiminloh deih lou leh pom thei lou nam 7-Hmar, Vaiphei, Gangte, Kom, Chiru, Anal leh Maringte’n Mong-on/Pamzal khua ah kikhopna nei in kituaktak in thupuukna [resolutions] 3 lakhawm uh hi. Thupuukna Khatna ah, William Shaw in Kuki nomenclature nuai a hon koih namte ka ut kei uh [The Conflict between the nomenclature of Kuki are unwanted]. Thupuukna Nihna ah, Thadou namte’n hausa ahihna ziak ua dinmun hoihzaw a neihna ziak un nam dangte nuaisiah a sawm louh ua, kuamah Kuki kichi dia a phuutluih louh diing uh[The Thadou tribe should not make any attempt to dominate on others because of their privileged position as chiefs and also should not force others to identify themselves as Kuki]. Thupuukna Thumna ah, khua khat peuh a pan sepaih/gaalkap a a luut diing chiang un leh Gaalpi Panpihna Sum [War Fund] a thoh chiang un Kuki chi a gelhluut pah mawk lou in, nou/nang bang mi/bang nam na hia/na hi ua? chi a dot masak ngeingei diing ahi hi[when any person of any village joined the Army and contributed an amount to the War Fund, he was to be asked to specify his ethnic group instead of the term Kuki]. Hiai meetingna a hun-uktu [Chairman] pen Vaipheite ahi a, a gelhluuttu[Secretary] bel Hmar-te ahi hi.1942 kum, June leh August kha in William Shaw’ laibu mohpaihna nei[condemned] in,Thadou leh Kuki min na nial/na nolhkik uh hi.


Leitungbup Gaalpi Nihna [Japan Gaalpi ci a i theih uh] bei nung in Kuki kicih diing ut lou hiai nam 7te’n a kuul-le-poimoh leh zong kidoupih leng khawksa lou in Pamzal [laibu khenkhat ah Mawng-on kici] ah kulhkhoh in kisakkholhna hon neitou uh hi. Kuki makaite toh Tualbual [Thanlon khua min masa] khua ah a nihvei kihouna uah Kuki makaite’n Kuki khazaakna nuai ah kuamah ka hon koih nawn kei diing uh cih thuciam a bawl ziak un Kuki deih leh Kuki pom loute kikal a tualgaal piang thei diing pen hong vaaiveng thei hi. Himahleh Kuki makaite’n a thuciam uh zuausan leh kitheihmohbawl in nam dangte “Kuki”cih min hong huapsak in Kuki na hi uh hong cih uh a khiam tuan kei hi.


1947 kum, June 28 ni in Tuithaphai Hausa Khawmp i[The Khuga Valley Chiefs Conference] uah Thadou kia hilou in Kuki leng deih lou in na nial uh ahihdan A.K.Ray in hibang in na gen hi: “Not only the term “Thadou” but also  the term “Kuki” was denounced by  a large number of Chiefs. In the Khuga Valley Chiefs Conference held on 28.6.1947,the term “Kuki”, was denounced on the ground that it was not their forefather’s name. It is a foreign term, they believed, denoting bad meaning. It was also mentioned in the same meeting that the different non-Naga tribes of Manipur should not be branded as Kukis. In the same tone, the term Thadou was also denounced and equality of all the tribes was pleaded in the meeting.”[A.K.Ray, “Authority and and Legitimacy: A Study of the Thadou-Kuki in Manipur”1990, Delhi:Renaissance Publishing House,pp.115,116].


Mangkang Gamkeek Kumpite a pan India in suahtaakna leh zaleenna a muh [1947 kum,August 15] nung sawt lou in Imphal a om Dharamsala kicihna mun a om Kuki Co-operation Society Inn ah Tongkoi khua hausa Pu Zavum Misao, Pu T.Kipgen leh Motbung khua hausa Pu Lunnehte makaih in Kuki makaite leh Kuki kicih ut lou/deihlou nam dangte’n kikhopna [Meeting] khat neikhawm uh hi. Hiai kikhopna ah Paite, Kom, Hmar, Anal, Vaiphei, Gangte, Simte leh adangdang a tel baan uah Kuki deihloute’ makaitu in Pu T.C.Tiankham, Pu Haukhawlet,Pu Mono, Pu Teba Kilong, Pu H.Nengzachin leh Pu Dr Thanglung cihte a hong pang uh hi.


Hiai Meeting a Chairman Pu Lunneh un, “Meeting minutes leh deliberations peuhmah Kuki diktak Thadou pau a gelh vek ahi dia, Thadou pau pen i pom vek diing uh ahi” cih thu mipi paikhawmte lak a hon luikhiak ciang in nialkalhna leh kiseelna in zuipah ngal hi. Huci bang a kiseelbuaina a hong om ciang in Meeting Chairman Pu Lunneh  in, “Kuki hih ut lou peuhmah pawtkhia un [Those of you who refuse to be called Kuki get out] a cih ciang in, Kuki cih deih loute’n, “Ka pawtkhe lawtel diing uh” [we will definitely get out]” ci a dawng in huai kikhopna nusia in a pawtkhia uh hi. Huai hunlai aa dia huai kikhopna pen Kukite toh a kihou tawpna [nanungpen]uh suak hi.Hiai thu toh kisai a Pu Tawnsing Christian Tiankham BA I.A.S [1913-1996] in An Autobiography laimai 54,55 ah hici in diktak in na ciamteh hi:


“…However, as the Kukis still called the other tribes “Kuki”, there were many further talks at the Kuki Co-operation Society In[house/building] at Dharamsala, Imphal. The Kuki leaders were: T.Kipgen, Zavum and Lunneh[Chief of Motbung]. On the other side were just T.C.Tiankham and Teba Kilong. It was agreed that each person at the meeting could have two advisors. I took Pu Nengzachin and Dr.Thanglung along with me. At our first meeting, Pu Lunneh, the Chairman, said to us, “Those of you who refuse to be Kuki, get out.” “We will definitely get out,” promptly replied Pu Nengzachin, and we got out. This was the final talk.


The leaders of those who then refused to be Kuki were: Haukhawlet, Teba Kilong, T.Thangkhai [my elder brother],Mono,etc and thus formed “Khul(Sinlung/Chhinlung) Union.”  Khul Union became very strong that in the contest for Minister among the non-Naga Group in the Manipur Interim Council [August 8,1947-November 22,1948]Pu T.Kipgen, who contested in the name of KNA[Kuki National Assembly] could not beat me. I did not need to resign from my post of Circle Officer, my work as Minister being nominated.”


Manipur Simlam[South] a om Tualbual [Thanlon] ah khua 48 in a huap Area Chiefs’ Conference [Khawmpi] khat kin-le-buang in sam uh hi. Huai Conference a tel palai 157 paikhawmte’n kikhaikhawmna min[nomenclature] dia  “Kuki” kici lailai diing maw?  “Mizo” kici diing maw? [Lushai Hills a Mizo Unionte’ huzaapna ziak in adiak in,unau Hmarte lak ah Mizo kicih diing deihna na om pan hi] ahihkeileh  “Khuul” kici diing maw? ci a vote khiakna a neihna uah, “mi 111” in Khul a kiminloh diing deih leh teel zaw uh ahihman in Khul Union kici hong kibawlkhia hi.Ei lak a dia nomenclature thu a vote kilaak masakpen ahi a, vote muhdan anuai bang ahi hi:

                Khul –    111

                Mizo –     32

                Kuki –     14

[See SR Tohring, “Violence And Identity in North-East India: Naga-Kuki Conflict”,2010: New Delhi:Mittal Publications,pp.19,20].


A tamzawte’ deihna bang a Khul Union a maikai leh madawk diakte ahih uh leh: Pu Haukhawlet, Pu  Taba Kilong, Pu T. Thangkhai, Pu T.C.Tiankham,Pu H.Nengzachin, Pu Mono, Pu T.Shaikham leh adangdang ahi uh hi.


Any Kuki Tribes, Any Lushai Tribes leh Any Naga Tribes deih lou a Kiphinna:

India Ki-ukna Daanbupi Article 341 leh 342 siiksan in 1950 kum in India President in Part A leh Part B state-te aa diing in Scheduled Tribes [STs] leh Scheduled Castes [SCs] Orders nih suahkhia hi. Hiai Order nihte ah minam tuantual bang zah hiamte pen Scheduled Castes leh Scheduled Tribes ciin ciamteh hi. Constitution [Scheduled Tribes] Order 1950 dungzui in Manipur sung ah Scheduled Tribe-te pen a lompi [a honpi] a khen in khenpi [categories] 3 phasak in (i) Any Kuki Tribes, (ii) Any Lushai Tribes, leh (iii) Any NagaTribes ci in koih hi.


Kuki lah hi lou, Naga lah hi lou, Lushai lah hi lou- Paite, Hmar,Vaiphei, Kom, Anal, Maring, Gangte, Simte, Zou leh adangdangte’n amau nam [tribe] min pen Constitution [Scheduled Tribes] Order 1950 a a omkhaak louh man in India Ki-ukna Daanbupi a hamphatna [veenbitna, khaamkholhsakna, deihteel theihna, sum-le-paai a panpihna leh dangdang] kipete ka hamphatpih un a zaal ka zou pha kei uh chiin phunnawina leh kiphinna lam chii tuamtuam hon pan uh hi.


1951 kum in, Paite National Council [PNC]  in kiteelpina [General Election] ah amau MP candidate diing in Pu T.Thangkhai[Pearsonmun’hausapa] a hon tungkhia ua, himahleh huai hun a Returning Officer, M.N. Phukan in,“Candidate[T.Thangkhai] in Paite kici Kuki ahi kei a, Naga leng ahi kei a, Lushai leng ahi sam kei” a cih ziak in, “tua MP’ seat lah Scheduled Tribes kichi Any Kuki Tribes, Any Lushai Tribes, Any Naga Tribe-te aa dia khaamkholhsa[reserved] ahihman in, a nomination ka pom kei”= “The candidate( i.e.Mr.Thangkhai) says that Paite is neither a Kuki nor a Naga nor a Lushai.The seat is reserved for the Scheduled Tribes which mean any Kuki tribe, any Lushai or any Naga tribe.The nomination is rejected.”Sd/-M.N.Phukan,Returning Officer,Dated December 8,1951”chiin 1951 kum, December 8 ni in a pom louhna thu a gelhthoh in pia hi.


Paite’ min a kiteelpina a tuh thei lou[candidate thei lou] a nolh a om chih mawk pen leh India Ki-ukna Daanbupi sung a amau nam min khumluut a om louh cih himhim diksa lou in a ngaisiam thei kei uh hi. Hiai hun in Paite kampaute kia hinawn lou in, nawlkhiin, poseh leh deidan a om cih pom thei lou, ut lou leh a deih lou nam tuamtuamte’n kiphinna, helna leh phunnawina khawktak hon pan uh hi. India Phualpi kumpi in zong hiai thubuai  a mun mahmah a kancian leh a thubul suutkhe diing in Kaka Kalelkar [Chairman] makaih in Commission khat bawlkhia in a Chairmanpa’ min tam in Kaka Kalelkar Commission hong kici hon sawlkhe pah uh hi.Hiai Kaka Kalelkar Commission’ Report dungzui in 1956 kum in Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes[Modification] List hong kibawl thak in, Manipur ah Scheduled Tribes 29 guanluut in hong om hi.Hiai hun in Manipur a kipat “Any Kuki Tribes” leh “Any Naga Tribes” kici hong kilakhia in hong bei hi.

[Ciamteh in: “Kuki/Naga/Lushai ka hi kei uh” ci a miin kiphinna leh ngetna a neih nung ua, a ngetna b

ang ua amau nam(tribe) min ciat a theihpihna[recognition]a muh nung nasan a leng , mimal,pawlpi leh government official kua hiam khat in, Kuki hiam Naga hiam ahihkeileh Lushai hiam hong hihsak teitei tupna  hong neih ualeh pen kisimmohna/kinelhsiahna/kinuaisiah ahi  ciin kila lou-thei-lou hi. A scope pen category neu in lian ta leh a minamte’ deihdan leh kicihna dan kaan a dik leh tang om thei lou hi. It will be well to call people as they called themselves]


Hiai Kaka Kalelkar Commission in 1955 kum a Report a piakna uah anuai a bang in Paite, Hmar leh nam dangte tungtang na pia hi:


From information made available to us, it was found that the tribes in Assam and Manipur had been classified by the British Officers as Kukis, Nagas, Akas or Lushais in a casual fashion. Some of them are tribal names and others are general. Certain tribes resented being included wrongly under different regional or tribal names. It was suggested that the Scheduled should simply mention Any Kuki or Lushai tribe, but this too in our mind, would not solve the problem satisfactorily. There are the Hmars, the Paites and others for instance, refused to be classified among Kukis or Nagas. Though some of the Paites are Chin and objection was raised to their classification under the general heading of Chin. In these circumstances, we are of the opinion that it would be more convenient to list all the tribes by their own particular names in the hilly areas of Assam and Manipur.”


1955 kum in India Ki-ukna Daanbupi nuai ah Scheduled Tribes list a guanluut a om theihna diing in Paite, Hmar, Vaiphei leh nam tuamtuam in ngetna leh phuutna in memoranda piakluutna a nei uh hi.Paite National Council-te [PNC] ngial in houh 1955 kum, November 18 ni in Minister, Home Affairs, Government of India’ khut ah Memorandum khat a piakna uah, “G.A. Grierson in his Linguistic Survey of India [vide page 8A Vol III] showed clearly that the language of the Paites is different from any of other tribes namely, the Lusheis, the Nagas and the Kukis and Dr Grierson gave some exhausted examples. Suppose we give the following word “what” to show the difference between Paite, Lushei or Kuki; English [what?]. Paite [Bang ahia?], Kuki (Thadou) [Ipiham?], Lushai [Engani?] …If this demand of recognition be denied of us, it cannot mean other thing than denial of citizenship to us, the Paites will take it for granted that they are not wanted to be integral part of Indians, and therefore can join any other Government which will give them [Paites] due recognition and they cannot be blamed for that…” chiin a ngetna uah vaukholhna leng gelhtel ngal uh hi[Hiai thugelh tawplam “Appendixes” ah Memorandum of Paite National Council to The Honourable Minister, Home Affairs, Govt of India, 1955 leng koihluut ahi].


Kalelkar Commission in report leh recommendations a bawl toh kituak in 1956 kum, April 28 ni in Manipur kumpi in tribal list a guanluut diing hon bawl thak hi.


India Vaihawmna Innpi[Parliament] ah hiai tribe list a guanluut diing thu genkhawm ahih lai in Phualpi kumpi in SL. No. 2 ah Anal toh Moyon, kualkhum (bracket) sung ah Monsang koih diing; Sl. No. 20 ah Paite, kualkhum (bracket) sung ah Simte koih diing chih a ngiimdan ahi hi. Huai omdan bel Moyon (Monsang) chih hi dia, Paite(Simte) chih hi diing chihna ahi hi. British Record khenkhat ah Paite leh Simte(Simmte), Paite leh Sukte, Paite leh Zou chih tuamkhen lou in akikhat leh a kibang in na simkhawm uh hi [Vide 1886 kum a Captain E.W. Dun in a gelh, “Gazetteer of Manipur,” Lt.Col. AS. Reid in a gelh “Chin-Lushai land,” Carey leh Tuck in a gelh uh,“The Chin Hills Vol I leh adangdang]. Government of India Bill No. 8 of 1956 dungzui in Paite a kipan Zou laakkhiak diing, Paite baan a kualkhum (bracket) sung Simte kikoih zong laakkhiak a nam tuam a koih diing chih Manipur Kumpi deihdan a hong hi thak hi. Zou toh kisai a Manipur Kumpi in India phualpi kumpi kiang a siikkhau a saatna [telegraphna] uah hichiin gelhsuk uh hi:


“… Another community called Zou may be included in the list of scheduled. The Zou are about ten thousand in number living in the hill areas… Hither to they have been grouped under Paite…”


Hiai Bill pen Act a pom a hong om in President of India in 1956 kum in Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Modification) Order, 1956 hon suahkhia in, Anal a kipan in Moyon leh Monsang nam a tuam a guan in hong om uh hi. Tua mah bang in Paite toh nam khatdan a simkhawm a na om Simte, Sukte leh Zou a khenzaak in hong om hi.1956 kum a kipan in Nagate’n zong amau nambing min ciat a hong kigelhluut in Any Naga tribes kichi hong bei in, Any Kuki tribes kici zong hong bei hi. AnyLushai tribes[a nunglam a Any Mizo tribes hong kici] kia phiat louh in hong om hi. The North Eastern Areas [Reorganisation] Act (8) 1971 dungzui in, Assam state in a huap sung a singtangmite’n a luahna gam nih- Lushai Hills [a nunglam a Mizo Hills hong kici,tua Mizoram hong kici] leh, Khasi, Garo leh Jaintia Hills teng huap a hill state khat Meghalaya hong kibawlkhiak ciang in bang mah kheeklamdanna omlou in Assam state a omsa  Scheduled Castes leh Scheduled Tribes list pen mah kheeklamdanna nei lou in,a kibang geih in, Mizoram leh Meghalaya-te ah laaksawn [teikhiaksawn] in hong om hi.


1955 kum a Kalelkar Commission’ report leh recommendations toh kikalh in Assam [leh Mizoram leh Meghalaya] ah Paite leh nam khenkhat koih a om lou in Any Kuki Tribes nuai ah Paite sung a beh (clan) khenkhat leh nam (tribe) khenkhat koihluut in om veve hi. Meghalaya ah Sl. No.7 ah Any Kuki Tribes nuai ah Guite, Kuki, Sukte, Haolai, Thadou, Riang, Vaiphei, Hrangkhol cihte tel in 37 list kipia hi. Hiai bang mah in Mizoram leh Assam list ah leng om hi.Tripura ah ahihleh Sl. No. 9 (XIV) ah Kuki Sub-tribe nuai ah Paite,Paitu khat in kikoih hi.


2002 kum, December 18 ni in India Vaihawmna Innpi in “The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Order (Amendment) Bill, 2002 a puakluut uh paisuak[passed]pen uh India President in lemsakpihna suai a kaih toh kiton a  “The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Order[Amentment]Act,2002” -Part XVII- Mizoram entry 15-na ah Paite guanluut in om a, Part X- Manipur ah:


Entry 30 ah Poumai Naga,

Entry 31 ah Tarao

Entry 32 ah Kharam,

Entry 33 ah “Any Kuki Tribes”

cihte guanluut in hong om hi. Tuin, Manipur ah Scheduled Tribes 33 omta cihna ahi hi. Scheduled Tribe list a “Any Kuki Tribes”[Entry 33] hong om pen Paite, Simte,Hmar, Kom, Gangte,Zou leh adangdangte toh dinmun kibang/dinmun kikhat[category khat] hong suak cihna ahih bang in India Ki-ukna Daanbupi in a piak hamphatnate-special protection /safeguards, reservations,provisions etc zalzou kibang diing cihna suak hi.


Scheduled Tribes of Manipur

1. Aimol

2. Anal

3. Angami

4. Chiru

5. Chothe

6. Gangte

7. Hmar

8. Kabui (i) Puimei

            (ii) Rongmei

9. Kacha Naga (i) Zemei

                     (ii) Liangmei

10. Koirao

11. Koireng

12. Kom

13. Lamgang

14. Any Lushai (Mizo) Tribes

15. Maram

16. Maring

17. Mao

18. Monsang

19. Moyon

20. Paite

21. Purum

22. Ralte

23. Sema

24. Simte

25. Sukte

26. Tangkhul

27. Thadou

28. Vaiphei

29. Zou

30. Poumai Naga

31. Tarao

32. Kharam

33. Any Kuki Tribes


2001 Kisimpina [Census] dungzui a India gam pau tuamtuam zang milip siing khat (10000) leh a tung lam phazah tamlou laakkhiaksawn hiai bang/dan ahi hi:

                Lushai/Mizo       674,756

                Thadou             190,595

                Tangkhul           142,035

                Angami             132,225

                Sema                103,529

                Kabui                  94,758

                Hmar                  84,404

                Paite                   64,100

                Zeliang               61,547

                Kuki                    52,873

                Vaiphei               39,673

                Maram                37,340

                Liangmei             34,232

                Anal                   23,191

                Maring                22,326

                Zou                   20,857

                Kom                  14,673

                Gangte              14,500

                Simte                10,225

(Source : Manorama Yearbook 2012, pp. 575,576)


United Nations Organization [UNO] in “Draft Declaration on Indigenous Rights as Rewritten By the Working Group on Indigenous Populations After the 1992 sessions, As Found In Annex I, Report of the Working Group On Indigenous Populations On Its Tenth Session, E/CN.4/Sub.2/ 1992/33 Part II No.10 a kigen, “Indigenous Peoples have the right to revive,use,develop,promote and transmit to future generations their own languages,writing systems and literature, and designate and maintain their own names of communities,places and persons.State shall take effective measures to ensure that indigenous peoples can understand and be understood in political,legal and administrative preceedings, where necessary through the provision of interpretation or by other effective means” cih toh kituak a singtangmi[tribe] tuamtuam huap a kikhaikhawmna min dia “Zomi” ci a Zomi Re-Unification Organization[ZRO] ,Zomi Council[ZC] leh Zomi Revolutional Army{ZRA] hong kiphuanhiak ciang in suanlam tuamtuam bawltawm in 1997 kum,June 24 nitaak daak 8 vel a Kuki National Front[P] kicite’n khelhna/mohna bei  Churachandpur district sung a om Saikul khua teeng Paite mi 10 hong kaaplup ciang un mipi in thuak thei lou in Kuki leh Zomi kikal ah tualgaal hong piang hi.


Mi khenkhat in hiai Kuki leh Zomite kikal a tualgaal a gen ciang un Paite gaal/Thadou gaal ahihkeileh unau meelhaih hun,i hailai peuh ciin hepkhiak sawm mahle uh,Peace Agreement/Cease-Fire Agreement  , 3te lak ah a masa 2te pen ZRA leh KNF min suai kikai hi a,a 3na pen kilemna picing mahmah ahih dungzui in Zomi Council leh Kuki Inpi kikal a kilemna ahi hi.


Kilemna masapen ahihleh Mizoram a kipan Pu C.Chawngkunga, Hon’ble Agricultural minister,Pu Lalrinchhana,MLA, Pu F.Lawmkima, MLA Pu H.Zathuama,MLA leh Pu F.Malsawma,MLA-te theihpihna a 1997 kum,July ni 7 ni in, KNF leh ZRA kikal ah kilemna pen ZRO/ZRA sik-le-taang a Thanglianpau,General Secretary, Daniel Thang,North Command,ZRA,KNF sik-le-taang in, T.Samuel,Defence Secretary,Lala Guite, Southern Command, KNF’ min in suai kai ua, Witness: in1.Selkai Hrangchal,2.Holkhomang Haokip 3.T.Thungzathang in suai kai uh hi[Hiai pen Re-Affirmation of Peace Accord kici hi].


Cease-Fire Agreement nihna pen 1997 kum, August 11 ni in Dr Chaltonlien Amo,Hon’ble Minister of State[Medical] leh HNU and his team theihpih leh panlaakna ziak in KNF leh ZRAte’n suai kai nawn uh hi.Southern Command,KNF leh KNF sik-le-taang in SHANADA in suai kai a, Commander, ZRA North Zone leh ZRA sik-le-taang in V.K.JOSHUA in suai kai hi.Witnesses in: 1.H.K.Joute,VP.HNU,2.S.L.Thangvela,A/G Secy,MPC,3.K.Vungzalian,Peace Observer.4.Chungsei Haokip,Imphal.5.Vipin Haokip,CAS/KNA. 6.Thanglianpau,ZRO/Gen.Secy, 7. H.A.Lalrohlu,Editor: Shan,Pressman in suai kai uh hi.


Publicity Wing, Zomi National  Volunteers[ZNV],Manipur Division in thusuah a bawl uh “Critical Analysis of the  ZOMI- KUKI Conflicts kici The Voice of Churachandpur:Evening Post in a ciamtehna  laimai[peek]41-91 ah Kuki-Zomi kikal a buaina/kisiatna om sung in:


Nos of Zomis brutally killed/shot death  :                     097

Nos of zomis kidnapped and brutally murdered:           026

Total no. of death persons as on 22nd October,1997:   123

Nos of injured persons                                              062

Nos of houses gutted down by Kuki militants:            1465+

Nos of Schools/Halls etc belonging to Zomis gutted:    032

cih ahi hi.The Voice of  Churachandpur EVENING pOST mah in “CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ZOMI-KUKI CONFLICTS[booklet] pp12,13 ah KNF[P] in dik loutak a ZRAte leh NSCN[IM] kizom leh pangkhawm ci a hong ngoh mawk pen uh hici in ZRA in dawng uh hi: “Just to justify their annihilation programme on Paites, the KNF[P] use the public shield of an eye-wash by accusing ZRA of having link with NSCN[IM].It was clarified by the ZRA proving it otherwise in unequivocal terms which is duly endorsed by the Govt.


Again, the baseless accusation is to justify the use of their sophiscated weapons supplied to them by the Government of India through the RAW to fight against the NSCN[IM] or Naga militants which they turned towards the innocent and defenceless Paite civilians in the poor hilly villages,where there no security protection at all. But, all the victims injured and killed were only innocent Paite women and children and there was no single Naga killjed among hundred of Paite killed.It is,therefore,evidently proved beyond any reasonable doubts that the accusation is a lame excuse to justify their demonic plans for extermination of peace loving Paite-Zomis who are not prepared at all for the inevitable civil war with the stiff-necked Kuki militants”


998 kum, October ni 1 ni in Final Peace Accord Between Zomis and Kukis For Restoration of Peace and Normalcy In Churachandpur District

Introduction: The State High Level Committee headed by Shri W.Nipamacha Singh, Chief Minister of Manipur, initiated Peace Process between Kuki and Zomi communities. As instructed by the State Government and as authorized by the conflicting parties, the Zomi Council and Kuki Inpi after every exerted effort on behalf of their reprented respective parties pledge to forgive and forget the past mistakes committed against each other. The Zomi Council and Kuki Inpi highly appreciate the State Government for all its official commitments for peace and reconstruction programmes.


Compromise:  As a token of customary apology for mowing down ten innocent persons and injuring four persons on the night of the 24th June,1997, at Saikul village by the KNF thereby dragging the two communities into conflict, the Kuki Inpi offered a feast by killing a four legged animal, a bull[bawngtal], on the 29th September,1998. In a very Cordial atmosphere and mutual trust, the feast was happily shared together by leaders of the Kuki Inpi and Zomi Council. In response to the good gesture shown by the Kuki Inpi, the Zomi Council showed their goodness and love for peace in the form of killing another four legged animal, a pig[voktal],the following day, the 30th September,1998,which was happily shared together by both community leaders.


Agreement: Both the parties agreed upon the following points:

1. That, the nomenclatures Kuki and Zomi shall be mutually respected by all Zomis and Kukis. Every individual or group of persons shall be at liberty to call himself or themselves by any name, and the nomenclature KUKI and ZOMI shall not in any way be imposed upon any person or group against his/their will at any point of time.


2. That, any person who has occupied or has physical possession of any land/private building/houses and quarters wrongfully and illegally during the period of clashes shall return and restore to the rightful owners, such land and buildings.


3. That, no Kuki or Zomi militant shall indulge themselves in any forcible collection of funds, taxes, etc, against their counterpart nomenclature be it from the Government Officials, individuals, contractors and business establishments.


4. That, all points of MOUs between the Kuki Inpi and the Zomi Council shall be operative and binding to all concerned persons and parties including the government.


       Signed this Ist October,1998 on behalf of Kukis and Zomis respectively.

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